AbstractCanine Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic in Mediterranean countries. The disease represents an important public health issue in Kosovo in which the autochthonous cases by humans were reported in the last years. The objective of this study was to survey the serological and clinical data of Canine Leishmaniasis in dogs in southwestern region of Kosovo. The blood samples were collected from stray dogs in four municipalities, respectively Prizren, Gjakova, Rahovec and Deçan. The total 125 samples were collected between April/September 2016. Antibodies of Leishmania infantum were detected by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA IgG). Out of total 125 serum samples, 23 dogs (18.4%) were positive for Leishmania infantum. In three of 23 infected dogs (13%) were shown the clinical signs of Canine Leishmaniasis as skin and ocular lesions, decreased appetite, lameness, diarrhea, lethargy and progressive weight loss. The highest infection rate was detected in Prizren municipality (21.6%), followed by Gjakova (17.6%), Rahovec (17.1%) and Deçan (7.8%). The present study confirmed that the Leishmaniasis is endemic in southwestern part of Kosovo and emphasized the need to establish the surveillance and control of this disease.
Ayhan N., Sherifi K., Taraku A., Berxholi K. & Charrel N.R. 2017. High rate of neutralizing antibodies to Toscana and Sandfly fever Sicilian viruses in Livestock, Kosovo. Emerg Infect Dis,23 (6), 989‑992.
Barati M., Mohebali M., Alimohammadian M.H., Khamesipour A., Akhoundi B. & Zarei Z. 2015. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: seroprevalence survey of asymptomatic dogs in an endemic area of northwestern Iran. J Parasit Dis, 39 (2), 221‑224.
De Paiva‑Cavalcanti M., de Morais R.C.S., Pessoa‑e‑Silva R., Trajano‑Silva L.A.M., Gonçalves‑de‑Albuquerque S.D.C., Tavares D.D.H.C., Brelaz‑de‑Castro M.C.A., Silva R.D.F. & Pereira V.R.A. 2015. Leishmaniases diagnosis: an update on the use of immunological and molecular tools. Cell & Bioscience, 5, 31.
Esteve L.O., Saza S.V., Hoseind S. & Solano‑Gallegoa L. 2015. Histopathological findings and detection of toll‑like receptor 2 in cutaneous lesions of canine leishmaniosis. Vet Parasitol, 209, 157‑163.
Sykes J.E. and Greene C.E. 2012. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat, 4th Ed. (Saunders, eds.). Elsevier, 1376 pp.
Hamel D., Shukullari E., Rapti D., Silaghi C., Pfister K. & Rehbein S. 2016. Parasites and vector‑borne diseases in client‑owned dogs in Albania. Blood pathogens and seroprevalences of parasitic and other infectious agents. Parasitol Res, 115 (2), 489‑499.
Lazri T., Duscher G., Edelhofer R., Bytyci B., Gjino P. & Joachim A. 2008. Infektionenmitarthropodenübertragenen Parasitenbei Hundenim Kosovo und in Albanienunterbesonderer Berücksichtigung der Leishmanieninfektionen. Wien Klin Wochenschr (In German), 120 (4), 54‑58.
Miranda S., Roura X., Picado A., Ferrer L. & Ramis 2008. Characterization of sex, age, and breed for a population of canine leishmaniosis diseased dogs. Res Vet Scien, 85, 35‑38.
Miró G., Checa R., Montoya A., Hernández L., Dado D. & Gálvez R. 2012. Current situation of Leishmania infantum infection in shelter dogs in northern Spain. Parasites & Vectors, 5, 60.
Naucke T.J. & Lorentz S. 2012. First report of venereal and vertical transmission of canine leishmaniosis from naturally infected dogs in Germany. Parasites & Vectors, 5, 67.
Pigott D.M., Bhatt S., Golding N., Duda K.A., Battle K.E., Brady O.J., Messina J.P., Balard Y., Bastien P., Pratlong F., Brownstein J.S., Freifeld C.C., Mekaru S.R., Gething P.W., George D.B., Myers M.F., Reithinger R. & Hay S.I. 2014.Global distribution maps of the leishmaniases. Elife, 27, 3.
Ready P.D. 2010. Leishmaniasis emergence in Europe. Euro Surveill, 15, 10.
Saridomichelakis M.N. 2009. Advances in the pathogenesis of canine leishmaniosis: epidemiologic and diagnostic implications. Vet Dermatol, 20, 471‑489.
Solano‑Gallego L., Miró G., Koutinas A., Cardoso L., Pennisi M.G., Ferrer L., Bourdeau P., Oliva G. & Baneth G. 2012. LeishVet guidelines for the practical management of canine leishmaniosis. Parasites & Vectors, 4, 86.
Solano‑Gallego L., Koutinas A., Miró G., Cardoso L., Pennisi M.G., Ferrer L., Bourdeau P., Oliva G. & Baneth G. 2009. Directions for the diagnosis, clinical staging, treatment and prevention of canine leishmaniosis. Vet Parasitol, 165, 1‑18.
Sykes J.E. 2014. Canine and feline infectious diseases (Saunders, eds.). Elsevier, 928 pp.