Veterinaria Italiana 2024-04-05T11:59:17+02:00 Laura Ambrogi Open Journal Systems <p>A quarterly peer-reviewed journal devoted to veterinary public health and other aspects of veterinary science and medicine, Veterinaria Italiana is published by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (Istituto G. Caporale) in Teramo, Italy.</p> Evaluation of ELISA in raw milk for detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herd 2023-10-03T15:05:47+02:00 Silvina Tieri Karina Cirone Claudia Morsella Laura Méndez Silvia Mundo Bárbara Fernández Fernando Paolicchi <p>Paratuberculosis (PTBC) is a chronic intestinal disease of animals caused by <em>Mycobacterium avium</em> <em>paratuberculosis</em> (MAP). MAP infection is diagnosed through indirect tests based on the immune response. The aims of this study were to compare the performance of two milk ELISA for the diagnosis of PTBC and to assess the bulk tank milk (BTM) MAP exposure in dairy cattle in Argentina. A total of 357 fecal, serum, and milk samples were collected. The fecal samples were processed by culture for MAP isolation, while both, serum and milk samples were used for the detection of antibodies by two different ELISA tests, "<em>in-house</em>" and commercial kit. MAP was isolated in 3.9% of fecal samples. For milk ELISA, poor concordances were obtained. Optimized cut-off points were calculated. The highest sensitivity and specificity values (64% and 80% respectively) were obtained with the combination of MAP isolation and commercial milk ELISA. The results indicate that the combination of different techniques to identify of dairy cattle infected with MAP increases the efficiency of diagnosis. In addition, BTM samples (n=98) were evaluated to determine herd status using the commercial kit during two seasons, identifying 33.3% of positive samples in autumn and 35.4% in spring.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Silvina Tieri, Karina Cirone, Claudia Morsella, Laura Méndez, Silvia Mundo, Bárbara Fernández, Fernando Paolicchi Comprehensive genetic analysis of the first near-complete genome of bovine coronavirus and partial genome of bovine rotavirus in Türkiye through metagenomics 2023-10-10T16:32:57+02:00 Emel Aksoy Ahmet Kursat Azkur İbrahim Halil Miraloglu <p>Obtaining the complete or near-complete genome sequence of pathogens is becoming increasingly crucial for epidemiology, virology, clinical science and practice. This study aimed to detect viruses and conduct genetic characterization of genomes using metagenomics in order to identify the viral agents responsible for a calf's diarrhoea. The findings showed that bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and bovine rotavirus (BRV) are the primary viral agents responsible for the calf's diarrhoea. The current study successfully obtained the first-ever near-complete genome sequence of a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) from Türkiye. The G+C content was 36.31% and the genetic analysis revealed that the Turkish BCoV strain is closely related to respiratory BCoV strains from France and Ireland, with high nucleotide sequence and amino acid identity and similarity. In the present study, analysis of the S protein of the Turkish BCoV strain revealed the presence of 13 amino acid insertions, one of which was found to be shared with the French respiratory BCoV. The study also identified a BRV strain through metagenomic analysis and detected multiple mutations within the structural and non-structural proteins of the BRV strain, suggesting that the BRV Kirikkale strain may serve as an ancestor for reassortants with interspecies transmission, especially involving rotaviruses that infect rabbits and giraffes.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Emel Aksoy, Ahmet Kursat Azkur, İbrahim Halil Miraloglu Diagnostic evaluation of nested PCR and microscopy for Cryptosporidiosis in goats: can COWP gene based qRT-PCR be useful in assessment of active Cryptosporidial infections? 2023-08-25T09:26:26+02:00 Supriya Sachan Gururaj Kumaresan Dinesh Kumar Sharma Giridhari Das Suman Kumar Ravi Khare Anjali Pachoori Souvik Paul <p>The present research delved into the transmission patterns, diagnostic methods, molecular traits, and phylogenetic analysis of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> species. The research was undertaken to enhance comprehension of the epidemiology and the potential for zoonotic transmission. A total of 80 goat-kid samples were tested, 7 were confirmed positive by mZN microscopy and 12 by nested-PCR. By PCR, 18SSUrRNA, HSP70, and GP60 amplicons were tested for <em>Cryptosporidium</em>. The restriction enzymes viz., <em>SspI</em>, <em>VspI</em> and <em>MboII</em> were used to genotype 12 <em>Cryptosporidium</em> positive samples by which <em>C. parvum</em> and <em>C. bovis</em> mixed infections were detected. Quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR was used to transcriptionally screen the COWP-subunit genes to assess the severity of the infection in goat-kids, which showed upregulation of COWP6 and COWP4, while COWP9 and COWP3 genes were downregulated. A silent mutation was found at the codon CCA→CCC, which is being reported for the first time in goat field isolates. Phylogenetic and sequencing analyses confirmed the presence of the anthropozoonotic IIe subtype.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Supriya Sachan, Gururaj Kumaresan, Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Giridhari Das, Suman Kumar, Ravi Khare, Anjali Pachoori, Souvik Paul Meat juice as a feasible alternative sample for tuberculosis surveillance in large game 2023-10-02T12:38:32+02:00 Ana Carolina Abrantes David Risco Miguel Carvalho Rosario Cerrato Pedro Fernández-Llario Madalena Vieira-Pinto <p>In hunted animals, quality of blood samples may often be compromised. Alternative samples, such as meat juice, may offer an advantage to perform serological tests. This study evaluates if meat juice is a feasible alternative sample to perform the Tuberculosis ELISA test in hunted large game. Between 2017 and 2022, 175 samples were collected from 97 animals (14 red deer + 83 wild boar) in Portugal and Spain. Cohen's kappa coefficient was calculated at 0.71, pointing out a good agreement using 156 paired samples. The sensitivity of the ELISA test with serum was 37.6%, considering Tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) detected during the initial examination (26 TBL+/ELISA+ in a total of 78 serum samples). Using meat juice as matrix, the sensitivity increased to 37.5% (33 TBL+/ELISA+ in 97 meat juice samples). According to the agreement score and sensitivity being so close between the two matrices tested, meat juice could be a feasible alternative matrix.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ana Carolina Abrantes, David Risco, Miguel Carvalho, Rosario Cerrato, Pedro Fernández-Llario, Madalena Vieira-Pinto Investigation of Peste des petits ruminants virus circulation in Uttarakhand, India: a step towards global eradication of PPR by 2030 2023-06-12T09:24:55+02:00 Amisha Netam Anuj Tewari Rajesh Kumar <p>This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and to determine the virus distribution in unvaccinated goats in the Pantnagar region of Uttarakhand state, India. A total of 212 serum samples from goats were collected randomly from various villages in three districts (Udhamsingh Nagar, Nainital, and Almora) of Uttarakhand. Serum samples were tested for anti-PPRV antibodies by a commercially available kit. RNA was extracted from the clinical samples and it was subjected to one-step RT-PCR, followed by virus isolation from positive samples. A total of 41 animals from various villages were found to be seropositive with a prevalence rate of 19.33%. PPR outbreaks were also reported from the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, and detection by<br />PCR confirmed PPRV in 8 goats. Two representative swab samples were subjected to virus isolation in Vero cells and both samples showed typical cytopathic effects. The present study shows that PPRV is circulating in the Tarai region of Uttarakhand and mass vaccination for PPR must be followed in this region to increase herd immunity to a protective level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation of PPRV seroprevalence in unvaccinated goats of Uttarakhand, India.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Amisha Netam, Anuj Tewari, Rajesh Kumar Evaluation of the efficacy of a new inactivated vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus, Echerchia coli and Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in cows 2023-05-18T11:37:39+02:00 Hilal Zengin Zeliha Keskin Alkaç Yaser Vezir Sadettin Tanyıldızı Fatih Ahmet Korkak Betül Dağoğlu Hark Gurdal Dagoglu <p><em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli </em>and<em> Mycoplasma bovis </em>are the most commonly isolated mastitis pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new mixed vaccine against mastitis caused by <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Escherichia coli,</em> and <em>Mycoplasma bovis</em>. For this purpose, a mixed inactivated vaccine was administered subcutaneously to 24 heifers as one dose (2 mL) on the 45th day before birth and the second dose 21 days later. In 9 heifers, 2 mL of PBS was administered as placebo instead of vaccine. Then, heifers were divided into 3 groups as 7 vaccinated and 3 unvaccinated animals. <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, </em>and <em>Mycoplasma bovis</em> were administered to the groups through intramammary route. Three vaccinated heifers were considered the common control without bacteria in all groups. The parameters considered to assess the effect of vaccination were clinical findings, bacterial count in milk, somatic cell count, and antibody titers. Clinical signs were observed only in the unvaccinated placebo group. Bacteria count and somatic cell count in milk increased in vaccinated and unvaccinated heifers. However, this increase was less in vaccinated animals and gradually returned to the normal level. In the unvaccinated heifers, it was ever high. Serum antibody titers were measured before and after vaccination. Antibody titers were high in vaccinated heifers after vaccination and were negative in unvaccinated heifers. In conclusion, the mixed vaccine had beneficial effect against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, </em>and <em>Mycoplasma bovis</em> mastitis and stimulated the immune response of vaccinated heifers.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hilal Zengin, Zeliha Keskin Alkaç, Yaser Vezir, Sadettin Tanyıldızı, Fatih Ahmet Korkak, Betül Dağoğlu Hark, Gurdal Dagoglu Molecular characterization of lumpy skin disease virus in North Central Vietnam during 2021 and early 2022 2023-07-20T08:37:48+02:00 Anh Tuan Tran Ha Thi Thanh Tran Anh Duc Truong Van Tai Dinh Anh Kieu Dang Nhu Thi Chu Lanh Phan Hoai Thi Phan Huyen Thi Nguyen Nga Bui Thi To Hoang Vu Dang <p>In October 2020, the first outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Lang Son Province, Vietnam were reported by our laboratory. The disease had rapidly spread to the South, and it was reported in 55 of 63 provinces and cities of Vietnam by the end of 2021. The most economic loss caused by this disease occurred in the north-central region in 2021 where approximately 46,788 LSD virus (LSDV) infected cattle and buffaloes have been reported and 8,976 animals have been culled. However, the information on this pathogen circulating in this region is missing. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of LSDV circulating in north-central Vietnam in 2021 and early 2022. In total, 155 LSDV samples were collected during this period and three of these samples from each province were further characterized by Sanger sequencing analysis based on three key maker genes (GPCR, RPO30, and p32). Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on GPCR, RPO30, and p32 genes indicated that LSDV strains circulating in north-central Vietnam are closely related to previously reported strains in Vietnam regions which bordered China and all LSDV strains were 100% identical. These results show the importance of continuous monitoring and characterization of circulating LSDV strains and are important for vaccine development for the control and eradication of LSD in Vietnam.</p> 2024-04-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ahn Tuan Tran, Ha Thi Thanh Tran, Anh Duc Truong Again, Van Tai Dinh, Anh Kieu Dang, Nhu Thi Chu, Lanh Phan, Hoai Thi Phan, Huyen Thi Nguyen, Nga Bui Thi To, Hoang Vu Dang Toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in some animal-originated food products marketed in Turkey: presence and Public Health concerns 2023-03-22T10:19:37+01:00 Fulden Karadal Nurhan Ertas Onmaz Harun Hizlisoy Yeliz Yildirim Serhat Al Zafer Gonulalan Cemalettin Bagci <p>This study aimed to detect the presence of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>in some animal source food (ASF) including emulsified meat products (sausage and salami), dry fermented meat product (soudjouk), semi dry meat product (pastrami) and raw chicken meat. Sixty six (38.8%) of 170 samples were found to be positive for <em>S. aureus</em>. It was determined that <em>S. aureus</em> was found in 17 (56.6%) salami, 27 (54%) raw chicken meat, 9 (30%) soudjouk, 9 (30%) pastrami, 4 (13.3%) sausage samples. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) were identified in 5 out of 66 (7.5 %) isolates food matrices including 3 (4.5%) SEA, 2 (3.03%) SEC. The <em>sea</em> and <em>sec </em>genes were detected in 3 (4.5%) of 66 isolates. The results of this study highlight the need to provide suitable control strategies concerning production, sales, and storage to prevent the spread of enterotoxigenic <em>S. aureus</em> isolates in ASF. The key contribution of this study is its revelation of the presence of S. aureus in animal products sold in Turkish local markets, highlighting the potential public health risks associated with animal foods.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Fulden Karadal Detection of vesivirus in minks (Neovison vison), Italy 2021 2024-02-15T15:34:10+01:00 Paola Ripà Francesco Perugini Nicola Decaro Valentina Curini Addolorato Ruberto Maurilia Marcacci Vito Martella Alessio Lorusso Gianvito Lanave <p>Vesiviruses are important animal pathogens with a broad host range, and they have also been involved in accidental contamination of cells used for the production of drugs for rare and life-threatening human diseases. A vesivirus (family <em>Caliciviridae</em>) was detected in minks (<em>Neovison</em> <em>vison</em>) with respiratory and neurological signs, during syndromic surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 conducted in Italy. The complete genome (8,397 nucleotides in length) of the vesivirus strain ITA/2021/mink/TE (OR130287) was obtained by combining NGS approach with 5’ and 3’ RACE protocols. The virus was seemingly more related (95.9-97.2% nt identity in the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) to American vesivirus isolates 9/1980/US, 12/1980/US, and 20/1980/US dating back to the early 1980s than to recent mink strains. These results highlight the importance of gathering information on the virome of animals. &nbsp;</p> 2024-02-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Paola Ripà, Francesco Perugini, Nicola Decaro, Valentina Curini, Maurilia Marcacci, Vito Martella; Alessio; Gianvito Lanave Detection and dynamics of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the diagnosis and treatment of canine heartworm disease 2023-10-16T11:21:06+02:00 Ljubica Spasojević Kosić Vuk Vracar Gordana Kozoderovic Vesna Lalosevic <p>The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of TNF-alpha (TNF-α) in dogs naturally infected with <em>Dirofilaria immitis</em> (<em>D. immitis</em>) and to assess whether there are any changes in TNF-α concentration and their dependence during therapy for heartworm disease (HWD). For this study, 14 client-owned dogs with HWD were selected. Clinical and parasitological examinations (modified Knott test for circulating microfilariae and SNAP Test IDEXX for circulating <em>D. immitis</em> antigen) had been used for diagnosing <em>D. immitis </em>and HWD<em>.</em> All dogs were treated with an alternative therapy for HWD (oral doxycycline 10 mg/kg b.w., once daily for 6 weeks, then alternately 4 weeks without and 2 weeks with the medication, and oral ivermectin 6-14 µg/kg b.w., every 2 weeks). The dogs blood sera at the moment of HWD diagnosis, during and at the end of therapy were frozen for further quantifying of TNF-α (Canine TNF-alpha ELISA kit, Thermo scientific). At the moment of HWD diagnosis TNF-α was detected in 9 dogs (7.21±12.44 pg/ml). Concentration of TNF-α was not significantly change during the therapy, neither related to the level of <em>D. immitis</em> antigen nor to antigen level changes. The alternative therapy for HWD has no influence on TNF-α concentration dynamics.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ljubica Spasojević Kosić, Vuk Vracar, Gordana Kozoderovic, Vesna Lalosevic