Veterinaria Italiana <p>A quarterly peer-reviewed journal devoted to veterinary public health and other aspects of veterinary science and medicine, Veterinaria Italiana is published by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (Istituto G. Caporale) in Teramo, Italy.</p> Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise G. Caporale en-US Veterinaria Italiana 0505-401X Cross-sectional and histopathological studies of Feline Coronavirus infections in stray cats in Kuwait <p>Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) is a worldwide viral infection of felids. The disease is usually asymptomatic, but it can cause mild diarrhoea; however, few numbers of cases may develop a severe systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). This study aims to determine the prevalence of FCoV shedding in the faeces of stray cats in Kuwait and detect antibodies against FCoV in their serum. Histopathological analyses and RT‑PCR were used to prove cases of FIP. A total of 178 cats were examined for the presence of FCoV in their faeces using a rapid immunochromatography (IC) test. Anti‑FCoV Antibody (Anti‑FCoV Ab) was detected in their serum using ELISA. Eleven samples were tested using RT‑PCR to confirm positive cases. The prevalence of FCoV faecal antigen in stray cats was 32.6%. The overall detection rate of Anti‑FCoV Ab in stray cats was 44.9%. Nine cats tested positive using the RT‑PCR test. Six out of those nine were confirmed to be FIP positive through gross and histopathological examination. The characteristic uveitis and discoloration of the irises were seen. The present study is the first report confirming FCoV infection in stray cats in Kuwait. Postmortem and histopathological lesions in cases of FIP were recorded.</p> Nadra-Elwgoud M. I. Abdou Maha K. Al-Batel Adawia A. Henedi Laila Z. Al-Mutairi Koshy Varghese Attia Samy Copyright (c) 2024 Nadra-Elwgoud M. I. Abdou, Maha K. Al-Batel, Adawia A. Henedi, Laila Z. Al-Mutairi, Koshy Varghese, Attia Samy 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.2646.17310.3 Phlebovirus detection on phlebotomine sandflies in Lampedusa Island (Italy) <p>Phleboviruses are common human pathogens diffused on the Mediterranean area whose infection can cause the typical prodromal symptom of a mild three‑days fever. In particular, Toscana Virus (TOSV) has a great concern since its capacity to provoke central nervous system disorders like meningoencephalitis. Furthermore, as the phlebotomine arthropod vectors represent the main carrier for pathogens of the genus <em>Leishmania</em> as well, the purpose of the study was to investigate the presence of TOSV in Lampedusa, Italy previously reported for leishmaniosis infection cases. The survey was carried out through an initial sampling phase of sand flies, by means of CDC light traps, and a second step of molecular analyses. The genomic S‑segment of TOSV was targeted. The positive samples were sequenced and compared with those available in GenBank™ using Basic Local Alignments Tool (BLAST) analyses. The study revealed for the first time the presence of TOSV in Lampedusa, Italy. The entomological studies directed on vectors are currently widely used in sand fly surveillance, and new data on TOSV are of public health concern.</p> Stefano Reale Davide Anzà Federica Bruno Silvia Scibetta Eugenia Oliveri Fabrizio Vitale Germano Castelli Copyright (c) 2024 Stefano Reale, Davide Anzà, Federica Bruno, Silvia Scibetta, Eugenia Oliveri, Fabrizio Vitale, Germano Castelli 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.2711.17825.2 Evaluation of cardiovascular injury in dogs coinfected with visceral leishmaniasis and monocytic ehrlichiosis by echocardiographic examination and selected biomarker measurements <p>Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) and Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (ME), which are an important zoonotic diseases of dogs, causing multiple organ dysfunction and has a poor prognosis when not interfered. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the cardiovascular injury that develops in dogs that co‑infected with VL and ME with cardiovascular biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters. The animal material of this study was consisted of 14 owned dogs in total; 7 diseased dogs which were determined to be co‑infected with VL and ME according to the results of clinical examination and rapid test kits, and 7 healthy dogs, which were determined to be healthy as a result of the same examinations. As a result of echocardiographic examinations, decreased left ventricular cytolic and diastolic diameters (LVIDs, LVIDd), fractional shortening (FS) and increased ratio of left atrium to left aortic root diameter (LA/Ao) values were determined in the Co‑infected Group compared with the Healthy Group. Also, as a result of biomarker analysis, higher cTnI) D‑dimer and NT‑proBNP levels were detected in the Co‑infected Group. In conclusion, considering studies of dogs infected with VL and/or ME alone, it was concluded that similar cardiovascular injury develops in dogs co‑infected with VL and ME.</p> Canberk Balıkçı Erdem Gülersoy Songül Erdoğan İsmail Günal Adem Şahan Hasan Erdoğan Kerem Ural Copyright (c) 2024 Canberk Balıkçı, Erdem Gülersoy, Songül Erdoğan, İsmail Günal, Adem Şahan, Hasan Erdoğan, Kerem Ural 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.2684.17276.2 Genetic analysis of influenza A viruses of swine from commercial farms in Serbia <p>Swine influenza presents a very important health and economic issue in pig productions worldwide. Viruses that cause the disease are genetically very diverse but usually belong to the H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtype of influenza A viruses. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the full genome of viruses detected in swine from seven commercial farms. Through the analysis of the complete sequences of internal gene cassette together with previously characterized HA and NA genes we found three different genotypes amongst five completely sequenced viruses. Two viruses possessed a completely H1avN1 genotype (40%) and belonged to the H1avN1 lineage, which is prevalent in European swine populations. The other three viruses have arisen through the reassortment of the genes of H1avN1 and H1N1pdm09 lineages. In one sample we detected coinfection with viruses of H3N2 subtype with genes of H1avN1, H1N1pdm09 and A/swine/Gent/1/1984-like H3N2 lineages that presents a potential environment for the generation of a triple reassortant virus. The presence of the H1N1pdm09 origin M gene in this sample implies the potential risk of the introduction of these viruses into the human population. Phylogenetic analysis of internal gene cassette revealed slower evolution within genes of H1N1pdm09 lineage than those of H1avN1 lineage.</p> Jelena Maksimović Zorić Vesna Milićević Ljubiša Veljović Vladimir Radosavljević Branislav Kureljušić Ognjen Stevančević Chiara Chiapponi Copyright (c) 2024 Jelena Maksimović Zorić, Vesna Milićević, Ljubiša Veljović, Vladimir Radosavljević, Branislav Kureljušić, Ognjen Stevančević, Chiara Chiapponi 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.2712.17810.2 The occurrence and resistance of Shigella flexneri CECT4804 to acid stress in vitro and in vivo <p>The ability to maintain intra‑cellular pH is crucial for many microbes mainly the enterobacteria to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. In this context, the growth and survival of <em>Shigella flexneri</em> at different acid pH values were evaluated to explain the response strategies involved in the adaptation of <em>S. flexneri</em> CECT4804 in acid stress conditions. Furthermore, the capacity of this strain to produce slime on Congo Red Agar, biofilm formation on polystyrene plate and hydrophobicity are reported. In addition, the modification of the membrane fatty acids profiles has been studied. Moreover, an infection with the stressed strain was realized on rats in rates and examined for their toxicity in intestine tissue. The obtained results show that the strain survival is strongly influenced by acidity. Indeed, the stressed and unstressed strains became biofilm positive after acid stress. A significant increase in the hydrophobicity percentage compared to the values found under normal conditions, is also noticed. For the membrane fatty acids analysis, the acidity induces several modifications in the membrane composition. After the infection, the gravest lesion was registered in the intestine of rats administered with the bacteria stressed at the lowest pH.</p> Ines Taieb Ali Ellafi Sonia Ben Younes Anouar Feriani Amina Bakhrouf Ridha Elmzoughi Juan Alfonso Ayala Serrano Chedia Jabeur Copyright (c) 2024 Ines Taieb, Ali Ellafi, Sonia Ben Younes, Anouar Feriani, Amina Bakhrouf, Ridha Elmzoughi, Juan Alfonso Ayala Serrano, Chedia Jabeur 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.2529.18140.2 Serological evidence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in wild birds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>Wild birds have been reported to be reservoirs of viral diseases of poultry, and play an epidemiological role in their maintenance and spread. A serological survey was undertaken to determine the evidence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies in wild birds in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 150 apparently healthy wild birds comprising 30 each laughing dove, speckled pigeons, cattle egrets, village weavers and African silver bills were sampled. Sera collected were analysed for the presence of antibodies against NDV and avian paramyxovirus‑2 (APMV‑2) using the haemagglutination inhibition test. The results showed an overall seroprevalence of 4% (95% CI: 2.05‑10.1) to NDV. African silver bill showed a seroprevalence of 10.0% (95% CI: 2.61‑24.9) NDV antibodies while seroprevalence of 3.3% (95% CI: 0.16‑15.4) was recorded for cattle egrets, village weavers and laughing doves respectively. No statistically significant difference existed for NDV seroprevalence (P&gt;0.05) among the different species of wild birds. All the 150 sera tested negative for APMV‑2 antibodies. The result of this study confirmed the exposure of wild birds to NDV in the study area. Continuous surveillance with isolation and characterization of NDV in the wild birds is therefore recommended for strategic planning for control.</p> Bitrus Inuwa Wungak Yiltawe Gidado Shuaib Adamu Olumuyiwa Oyekan Henry Osemeke Onyeka Orakpoghenor Ochuko Ularamu Gulak Hussaini Shittu Ismailia Clement Meseko Copyright (c) 2024 Bitrus Inuwa, Wungak Yiltawe, Gidado Shuaib Adamu, Olumuyiwa Oyekan, Henry Osemeke Onyeka, Orakpoghenor Ochuko, Ularamu Gulak Hussaini, Shittu Ismailia , Clement Meseko 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.2710.17457.2 Does a therapeutical dose of ivermectin impairs testicular homeostasis of rats via excessive apoptosis? <p>Ivermectin is a medication used to treat parasite infestations in humans and in veterinary medicine. Previously we showed that therapeutical doses of ivermectin impaired spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis in adult rats. The present study was proposed to understand the pathophysiological mechanism that triggered these impairments induced by ivermectin. It was a particular objective to study if ivermectin induced excessive apoptosis. Adult rats were treated with a therapeutical dose of ivermectin (subcutaneously). Their testis was evaluated for the expression of caspase-3 (a marker of apoptosis), using immunohistochemistry techniques. Results revealed that ivermectin treatment increased the expression of caspase-3 (labeled seminiferous tubules and strongly labeled tubules), as well as increased the number of tubules that presented labeled cells in the tubular lumen, compared to the data of the control group. In conclusion, a therapeutical dose of ivermectin induced expressive apoptosis in cells of the seminiferous tubules of rats, affecting the testicular natural homeostasis process, which resulted in the spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis impairments previously reported.</p> Flora Cordeiro Flaviane L Ceglio Nathalia A Galvão Leoni V Bonamin Eduardo F Bondan Thiago Berti Kirsten Maria M Bernardi Copyright (c) 2024 Flora Cordeiro, Flaviane L Ceglio, Nathalia A Galvão, Leoni V Bonamin, Eduardo F Bondan, Thiago Berti Kirsten, Maria M Bernardi 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.2692.19722.2 Effects of flooring types on teat end bacteria counts, milk quality, hygiene and behaviour of dairy cows housed in tie-stall closed barn <p>This study aimed to investigate environmental mastitis causing bacteria counts in the teat end, somatic cell counts (SCC) of milk samples, cleanliness scores and behavior of cows kept on concrete and rubber mat floorings. For this purpose, 19 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated into concrete and rubber mat groups. Swab samples were taken from the teat ends to determine the bacterial counts causing environmental mastitis. Milk samples were collected from a composite of all four quarters to determine the SCC. Instantaneous sampling method was utilized to observe the behavioral activities of cows. Cows were visually evaluated to determine the udder cleanliness score. Independent samples t-test was utilized in the statistical analysis of the obtained data. Coliform (P&lt;0.05),<em> Escherichia coli</em>, and <em>Klebsiella</em> spp. (P&lt;0.01) counts of the swab samples taken from the cows housed on concrete flooring were significantly higher than rubber mat group. However, no statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of total bacteria, <em>Streptococcus</em> spp., and <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> counts. The SCC on samples taken from cows kept on concrete surface were significantly higher (P&lt;0,05) than that of animals housed on rubber mat. Furthermore, cows in the rubber mat group were determined to be significantly cleaner (P&lt;0.05) than those in concrete group. It was also determined that the cows housed on rubber mat spent significantly longer time for lying behavior (P&lt;0.05), which is a significant indicator of animal comfort. The time spent for standing without eating was considerably higher (P&lt;0.01) in concrete group. In addition, the times spent for eating was significantly lower (P&lt;0.01) in the concrete group. It was concluded that, using rubber mat instead of concrete for flooring in tie-stall barns decreases the contamination of environmental mastitis pathogens, increases milk quality and cow cleanliness score as well as animal comfort and welfare.</p> Recep Aydın Abdülkerim Diler Veysel Fatih Ozdemir Mete Yanar Rıdvan Koçyiğit Copyright (c) 2024 Recep Aydın, Abdülkerim Diler, Veysel Fatih Ozdemir, Mete Yanar, Rıdvan Koçyiğit 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.2742.17966.2 The Border Disease virus (BDV) prevalence and genetic typing in ruminant flocks in Turkey <p>This study aims to update current data regarding Border Disease in sheep and goats, determine the first prevalence of BDV in cattle and identify its circulated genotype in Turkey. For this purpose, 100 sheep, 20 goats and 193 cattle aborted fetuses sent for diagnosis to Samsun Veterinary Control Institute between 2015 and 2017 were analyzed in terms of pestivirus by Ag‑ELISA, BDV by Real‑Time test (RT‑PCR) and Conventional RT‑PCR test. The rate of pestivirus positive animals was found at 50.26% (97/193) in cattle, 58% (58/100) in sheep and 55% (11/20) in goats by the pestivirus Ag‑ELISA test. Total of 58 Ag‑ELISA positive sheep were tested by Real‑Time RT‑PCR and conventional RT‑PCR tests. End of the tests, one sheep sample (1.72%) was found BDV positive by Real‑Time RT‑PCR test and three sheep (5.17%) and one cattle (1.03%) samples were detected as BDV positive by conventional RT‑PCR test. BDV positivity was not detected in goats in this research. All samples that were found positive by conventional RT‑PCR test and Real‑Time RT‑PCR test were genotyped by phylogenetic sequence analysis, and obtained results showed that BDV‑3 and BDV‑7 genotypes of BDV in sheep and BVDV‑1 genotype in cattle circulated in the investigated area. The sequence analysis results revealed that conventional RT‑PCR and Real‑Time RT‑PCR tests detected genotype BDV‑3, while genotype BDV‑7 was only detected by conventional RT‑PCR test in sheep abortion materials. Additionally, it was found that one bovine specimen was BDV positive by conventional PCR, but the same sample was identified as BVDV‑1 at sequence analysis. The obtained data of this study showed that new probes should be designed using our local strains for BDV diagnosis by Real‑Time RT‑PCR assay, and cattle must be sampled for BDV screening, and PCR tests results should always be confirmed by sequence analysis.</p> Ayhan Akman Semra Okur Gumusova Copyright (c) 2024 Semra Okur Gumusova, Ayhan Akman 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.2693.17780.2 First record of Aedes japonicus in Liguria region, Northwest of Italy <p><em>Aedes japonicus</em> is an invasive Asian mosquito species, and to date it is widespread in many European countries. In Italy, it was first recorded in 2015 at the Austrian border and it then spread throughout the Northeast of the country. In 2019, it was also identified in Piedmont region, near the Swiss border. In the framework of the Italian program for prevention, surveillance, and response to Arboviruses, from June to November 2021, biweekly entomological surveillance was performed in the Liguria region (Northwest Italy). The collected mosquitoes were morphologically and genetically identified and molecularly analysed for the detection of West Nile and Usutu viruses. Six female mosquitoes, trapped on the 6th of July 2021 using a gravid trap in Albenga (Savona province), were morphologically identified as <em>Ae. japonicus</em> and the identification was genetically confirmed. The pool tested was negative for the presence of West Nile and Usutu viruses. The detection of <em>Ae. japonicus</em> was performed in a coastal area characterized by the presence of many floriculture activities. Considering the distance from the established Ae. japonicus mosquito populations in Italy and other European countries, this could represent an independent introduction in this country.</p> Valeria Listorti Annalisa Accorsi Maria Vittoria Riina Simone Peletto Pier Luigi Acutis Valerio Carta Alessio Ferrari Cristiano Corona Cristina Casalone Carlo Ercolini Lisa Guardone Francesco Brunelli Elisabetta Razzuoli Copyright (c) 2024 Valeria Listorti, Annalisa Accorsi, Maria Vittoria Riina, Simone Peletto, Pier Luigi Acutis, Valerio Carta, Alessio Ferrari, Cristiano Corona, Cristina Casalone, Carlo Ercolini, Lisa Guardone, Francesco Brunelli, Elisabetta Razzuoli 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 59 2 10.12834/VetIt.3115.21678.2