AbstractThe aim of this study was to produce reference sera against the seven serotypes of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV‑1, EHDV‑2, EHDV‑4, EHDV‑5, EHDV‑6, EHDV‑7, and EHDV‑8). In a high containment unit, seven Prim ‘Holstein calves were inoculated at day 0 (D0) with the selected strains (1 EHDV serotype per calf ). Blood samples (EDTA and whole blood) were periodically taken from D0 until the end of the experiment (D31). Sera were tested with two commercially available EHDV competitive ELISAs (c‑ELISA). Viral genome was detected from EDTA blood samples using in‑house real‑time RT‑PCR. Sera taken on D31 post infection (pi) were tested and characterized by serum neutralization test (SNT) and virus neutralization test (VNT) (for calibration of reference sera). Viral RNA was first detected at D2 pi in five calves. All infected animals were RT‑PCR positive at D7 pi. Seroconversion was observed between D10 and D23 pi depending on the EHDV serotype. SNT and VNT have allowed to determine the neutralizing antibody titers of each serum and the potential cross‑reactions between serotypes. The two c‑ELISA used in this study showed similar results. The calibrated sera are now available for the serological identification of an EHDV isolated on tissue culture or to be used as positive control in seroneutralization assay.
Afshar A, Wright PF, Taylor LA, Shapiro JL, and Dulac GC. 1992. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of bovine antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer viruses. Can J Vet Res 56, 154-160.
Ahmed S, Mahmoud MAE, Viarouge C, Sailleau C, Zientara S, and Breard E. 2019. Presence of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in Egypt in 2016 and 2017. Infect Genet Evol 73, 221-226.
Anthony SJ, Maan S, Maan N, Kgosana L, Bachanek-Bankowska K, Batten C, Darpel KE, Sutton G, Attoui H, and Mertens PPC. 2009. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the outer-coat proteins VP2 and VP5 of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV): Comparison of genetic and serological data to characterise the EHDV serogroup. Virus Research 145, 200-210.
Batten CA, Edwards L, Bin-Tarif A, Henstock MR, and Oura CAL. 2011. Infection kinetics of Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease virus serotype 6 in Holstein-Friesian cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 154, 23-28.
Ben Dhaou S, Sailleau C, Babay B, Viarouge C, Sghaier S, Zientara S, Hammami S, and Breard E. 2016. Molecular characterisation of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus associated with a Tunisian outbreak among cattle in 2006. Acta veterinaria Hungarica 64, 250-262.
Breard E, Belbis G, Viarouge C, Riou M, Desprat A, Moreau J, Laloy E, Martin G, Sarradin P, Vitour D et al. . 2013. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6 experimentation on adult cattle. Res Vet Sci 95, 794-798.
Clavijo A, Sun F, Lester T, Jasperson DC, and Wilson WC. 2010. An improved real-time polymerase chain reaction for the simultaneous detection of all serotypes of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22, 588-593.
Dommergues L, Viarouge C, Metras R, Youssouffi C, Sailleau C, Zientara S, Cardinale E, and Cetre-Sossah C. 2019. Evidence of bluetongue and Epizootic Haemorrhagic disease circulation on the island of Mayotte. Acta Trop 191, 24-28.
Eschbaumer M, Wernike K, Batten CA, Savini G, Edwards L, Di Gennaro A, Teodori L, Oura CAL, Beer M, and Hoffmann B. 2012. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7 in European cattle and sheep: Diagnostic considerations and effect of previous BTV exposure. Veterinary Microbiology 159, 298-306.
Golender N, Khinich Y, Gorohov A, Abramovitz I, and Bumbarov V. 2017. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6 outbreak in Israeli cattle in 2015. J Vet Diagn Invest 29, 885-888.
Maan NS, Maan S, Nomikou K, Johnson DJ, El Harrak M, Madani H, Yadin H, Incoglu S, Yesilbag K, Allison AB et al. . 2010. RT-PCR assays for seven serotypes of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus & their use to type strains from the mediterranean region and North America. PLoS ONE 5, 1-13.
Maan NS, Maan S, Potgieter AC, Wright IM, Belaganahalli M, and Mertens PPC. 2017. Development of Real-Time RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Typing of Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus. Transbound Emerg Dis 64, 1120-1132.
Merrill MM, Boughton RK, Lollis LO, Sayler KA, and Wisely SM. 2019. Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Beef Cattle on a Ranch in South-Central Florida. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
Mertens P, Maan S, Samuel A, and Attoui H. 2005. Orbivirus Reoviridae. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, editors London Virus Taxonomy VIIIth Report of the ICTV Elsevier/Academic Press, 466-483.
OIE. 2014. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals
Pearson J, Gustafson G, Shafer A, and Alstad A. 1992. Bluetongue, African horse sickness and related Orbiviruses. TE Walton and BI Osburn, Editors CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 533-546.
Sailleau C, Zanella G, Breard E, Viarouge C, Desprat A, Vitour D, Adam M, Lasne L, Martrenchar A, Bakkali-Kassimi L et al. . 2012. Co-circulation of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses in cattle in Reunion Island. Veterinary Microbiology 155, 191-197.
Savini G., Afonso A., Mellor P., Aradaib I., Yadin H., Sanaa M., Wilson W., Monaco F. & Domingo M. 2011. Epizootic heamorragic disease. Res Vet Sci, 91, 1‑17.
Shirafuji H, Kato T, Yamakawa M, Tanaka T, Minemori Y, and Yanase T. 2017. Characterization of genome segments 2, 3 and 6 of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus strains isolated in Japan in 1985-2013: Identification of their serotypes and geographical genetic types. Infect Genet Evol 53, 38-46.
Temizel EM, Yesilbag K, Batten C, Senturk S, Maan NS, Clement-Mertens PP, and Batmaz H. 2009. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in cattle, Western Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis 15, 317-319.
Thevasagayam JA, Mertens PP, Burroughs JN, and Anderson J. 1995. Competitive ELISA for the detection of antibodies against epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus. J Virol Methods 55, 417-425.
Toye PG, Batten CA, Kiara H, Henstock MR, Edwards L, Thumbi S, Poole EJ, Handel IG, Bronsvoort BM, Hanotte O et al. . 2013. Bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus in local breeds of cattle in Kenya. Res Vet Sci 94, 769-773.
Viarouge C, Lancelot R, Rives G, Breard E, Miller M, Baudrimont X, Doceul V, Vitour D, Zientara S, and Sailleau C. 2014. Identification of bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes in French Guiana in 2011 and 2012. Vet Microbiol 174, 78-85.
Viarouge C, Breard E, Zientara S, Vitour D, and Sailleau C. 2015. Duplex Real-Time RT-PCR Assays for the Detection and Typing of Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus. PLoS One 10, e0132540.
Wechsler SJ, McHolland LE, and Tabachnick WJ. 1989. Cell lines from Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) support replication of bluetongue virus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 54, 385-393.
Wilson WC, Hindson BJ, O'Hearn ES, Hall S, Tellgren-Roth C, Torres C, Naraghi-Arani P, Mecham JO, and Lenhoff RJ. 2009. A multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for detection and differentiation of Bluetongue virus and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serogroups. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 21, 760-770.
Yadin H, Brenner J, Bumbrov V, Oved Z, Stram Y, Klement E, Perl S, Anthony S, Maan S, Batten C et al. . 2008. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus type 7 infection in cattle in Israel. Vet Rec 162, 53-56.