1
Malassezia overgrowth in dogs in northern Italy: frequency, body distribution, clinical signs and effects of pharmacologic treatments
VetIt.2124.12936.1

Keywords

dermatology
dog
Malassezia
Yeast count
Skin disease

How to Cite

Berlanda, M., Valente, C., Guglielmini, C., Danesi, P., Contiero, B., & Poser, H. (2022). Malassezia overgrowth in dogs in northern Italy: frequency, body distribution, clinical signs and effects of pharmacologic treatments. Veterinaria Italiana, 58(1), 103–109. https://doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.2124.12936.1

Abstract

The present study describes Malassezia populations in clinically healthy dogs (HD) and dogs with Malassezia overgrowth (MO), and evaluates the correlation with clinical signs and previous treatments. Thirteen clinically HD and 84 dogs with MO were enrolled. Clinical history and previous treatments were recorded. After a complete physical and dermatological examination, Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index_03 scores were calculated. Samples for cytology and mycological cultures were obtained from four body regions and from skin lesions. Malassezia overgrowth was diagnosed by cytology. A global score (GS) for quantitative evaluation of the population of Malassezia was calculated. In dogs with MO, the highest frequency of yeast detection was found in skin lesions (82%, P < 0.001). Sum of GS (GSs) obtained from dogs with MO (68, 0‑621) was significantly higher compared to those of HD (3, 0‑48, P < 0.001). GSs in dogs previously treated with antibiotics (312.5, 30‑975) was significantly higher compared to those of dogs that not have received antibiotics (80, 0‑975, P = 0.015). No difference was found between dogs treated and those not treated with steroids.
https://doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.2124.12936.1
VetIt.2124.12936.1

References

Batra R., Boekhout T., Guého E., Cabañes F.J., Dawson T.L. Jr & Gupta A.K. 2005. Malassezia Baillon, emerging clinical yeasts. FEMS Yeast Res, 5, 1101–1113.

Bond R. & Ferguson E. 1996. Factors associated with elevated cutaneous Malassezia pachydermatis populations in dogs with pruritic skin. J Small Anim Pract, 37, 103-107.

Bond R. & Lloyd D.H. 1997. Skin and mucosal populations of Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy and seborrhoeic Basset Hounds. Vet Dermatol, 8, 101–106.

Bond R. & Sant R.E. 1993. The recovery of Malassezia pachydermatis from canine skin. Vet Dermatol Newsletter, 15, 25.

Bond R., Collin N. & Lloyd D. 1994. Use of contact plates for the quantitative culture of Malassezia pachydermatis from canine skin. J Small Anim Pract, 35, 68-72.

Bond R., Curtis C.F., Hendricks A., Ferguson E.A. & Lloyd D.H. 2002. Intradermal test reactivity to Malassezia pachydermatis in atopic dogs. Vet Rec, 150, 448–449.

Bond R., Habibah A., Patterson-Kane J.C. & Lloyd D.H. 2006a. Patch test responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs. Med Mycol, 44, 175–184.

Bond R., Patterson-Kane J.C., Perrins N. & Lloyd D.H. 2006b. Patch test responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy basset hounds and in basset hounds with Malassezia dermatitis. Med Mycol, 44, 419–427.

Bond R., Lloyd D.H. & Plummer J.M. 1995. Evaluation of a detergent scrub technique for the quantitative culture of Malassezia pachydermatis from canine skin. Res Vet Sci, 58, 133–137.

Buommino E., Nocera F.P., Parisi A., Rizzo A., Donnarumma G., Mallardo K., Fiorito F., Baroni A. & De Martino L. 2016. Correlation between genetic variability and virulence factors in clinical strains of Malassezia pachydermatis of animal origin. New Microbiol, 39, 216-223.

Cabañes F.J., Theelen B., Castellá G. & Boekhout T. 2007. Two new lipid-dependent Malassezia species from domestic animals. FEMS Yeast Res, 7, 1064–1076.

Cafarchia C. & Otranto D. 2004. Association between Phospholipase Production by Malassezia pachydermatis and Skin Lesions. J Clin Microbiol, 42, 4868–4869.

Cafarchia C., Gallo S., Romito D., Capelli G., Chermette R., Guillot J. & Otranto D. 2005. Frequency, body distribution, and population size of Malassezia species in healthy dogs and in dogs with localized cutaneous lesions. J Vet Diagn Invest, 17, 316–322.

Castellá G., Coutinho S.D.A. & Cabañes F.J. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships of Malassezia species based on multilocus sequence analysis. Med Mycol, 52, 99-105.

Chermprapai S., Ederveen T.H.A., Broere F., Broens E.M., Schlotter Y.M., van Schalkwijk S., Boekhorst J., van Hijum S.A.F.T. & Rutten V.P.M.G. 2019. The bacterial and fungal microbiome of the skin of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis and the impact of topical antimicrobial therapy, an exploratory study. Vet Microbiol, 229, 90-99.

Coutinho S. & Paula C. 2000. Proteinase, phospholipase, hyaluronidase and chondroitin-sulphatase production by Malassezia pachydermatis. Med Mycol, 38, 73–76.

Crespo M.J., Abarca M.L. & Caban F.J. 2002. Occurrence of Malassezia spp. in horses and domestic ruminants. Mycoses, 337, 333–337.

Guillot J. & Bond R. 1999. Malassezia pachydermatys: a review. Med Mycol, 37, 295–306.

Gupta A.K., Boekhout T., Theelen B., Summerbell R. & Batra R. 2004. Identification and Typing of Malassezia Species by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer and Large-Subunit Regions of Ribosomal DNA. J Clin Microbiol, 42, 4253-4260.

Ihrke P.J., Mason I. & White S.D. 1993. Advances in veterinary dermatology. Vol 2: Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress, Montreal, Canada, May 13th-16th 1992, World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology.

Khosravi A.R., Hedayati M.T., Mansouri P., Shokri H. & Moazzeni M. 2007. Immediate hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur in patients with atopic dermatitis. Mycoses, 50, 297–301.

Kurtzman C.P. & Robnett C.J. 1997. Identification of clinically important ascomycetous yeasts based on nucleotide divergence in the 5' end of the large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA gene. J Clin Microbiol, 35, 1216-1223.

Layne E.A. & Deboer D.J. 2016. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Serum Malassezia -specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 176, 1–4.

Machado M.L.S., Ferreiro L., Ferreira R.R., Corbellini L.G. & Deville M., Berthelemy M., Guillot J. 2011. Malassezia dermatitis in dogs in Brazil: diagnosis, evaluation of clinical signs and molecular identification. Vet Dermatol, 22, 46–52.

Mauldin E.A., Scott DW, Miller WH & Smith C. 1997. Malassezia dermatitis in the dog: a retrospective histopathological and immunopathological study of 86 cases (1990-95). Vet Dermatol, 8, 191–202.

Miller W.H., Griffin C. & Campbell K. 2012. Muller & Kirk’s small animal dermatology, 7th ed. St Louis, MO, USA Elsevier, 243-249.

Nardoni S., Mancianti F., Corazza M. & Rum A. 2004. Occurrence of Malassezia species in healthy and dermatologically diseased dogs. Mycopathologia, 157, 383–388.

Olivry T., Marsella R., Iwasaki T. & Mueller R. 2007. Validation of CADESI-03, a severity scale for clinical trials enrolling dogs with atopic dermatitis. Vet Dermatol, 18, 78–86.

Olivry T., Mueller R., Nuttall T., Favrot C., Prélaud P. & International Task Force on Canine Atopic Dermatitis. 2008. Determination of CADESI-03 thresholds for increasing severity levels of canine atopic dermatitis. Vet Dermatol, 19, 115–119.

Plant J., Rosenkrantz W. & Griffin C. 1992. Factors associated with and prevalence of high Malassezia pachydermatis numbers on dog skin. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 201, 879-882.

Santoro D., Marsella R., Pucheu-Haston C.M., Eisenschenk M.N., Nuttall T. & Bizikova P. 2015. Review: Pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis: skin barrier and host-micro-organism interaction. Vet Dermatol, 26, 84-e25.

Teramoto H., Kumeda Y., Yokoigawa K., Hosomi K., Kozaki S., Mukamoto M. & Kohda T. 2015. Genotyping and characterisation of the secretory lipolytic enzymes of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates collected from dogs. Vet Rec Open, 21, 1–8.

Theelen B., Cafarchia C., Gaitanis G., Bassukas I.D., Boekhout T. & Dawson T.L. Jr. 2018. Malassezia ecology, pathophysiology, and treatment. Med Mycol, 56, S10-S25.

Widmer G., Ferrer L., Favrot C., Paps J., Huynh K. & Olivry T. 2018. Glucocorticosteroids and ciclosporin do not significantly impact canine cutaneous microbiota. BMC Vet Res, 14, 51.

Yurayart C., Chindamporn A., Suradhat S., Tummaruk P., Kajiwara S. & Prapasarakul N. 2011. Comparative analysis of the frequency, distribution and population sizes of yeasts associated with canine seborrheic dermatitis and healthy skin. Vet Microbiol, 148, 356–362.

Copyright (c) 2022 Veterinaria Italiana