Circulation of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains of bovine origin in China and India


Classical swine fever virus

How to Cite

Giangaspero, M., & Zang, S.-Q. (2023). Circulation of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains of bovine origin in China and India. Veterinaria Italiana, 59(1). https://doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.2757.17907.2


The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a species member of the family Flaviviridae. CSFV is widely distributed in the world causing a severe impact on pig industry. This pathogen is considered restricted to domestic and wild suids. However, some reports from 2014 to 2018 showed the presence of the CFSV antigen in the bovine species. The virus was found in commercialized batches of fetal bovine serum (FBS) of Chinese origin and in bovine herds in in the provinces of Henan and Jiangsu, China, and in Tamil Nadu and Meghalaya, southern and north‑eastern states of India, respectively. Detection was done using antigen capture ELISA and RT‑PCR tests. In certain cases, animals with natural infection showed clinical signs and reproduction was also affected. Genetic characterization was performed considering the 5’‑UTR sequences of the bovine strains. In addition, the entire CSFV E2 genomic region could be amplified from two positive animals. The bovine strains were genetically related to the Chinese CSFV live attenuated hog cholera lapinized vaccine (HCLV) strain used in pigs, sharing sequence characteristics. The vaccine strain HCLV was widely used in China to protect bovines and yaks from bovine viral diarrhea, and, as a possible consequence, inducing an adaptation in cattle and a further natural diffusion. Furthermore, a contaminant strain from China was genetically distant from all other previously described genotypes of the CSFV. This suggests also the occurrence of micro evolutive step in the species related to geographical segregation. These observations deserve attention and further investigations, especially relevant in countries where CSFV control and eradication strategies are applied.



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Copyright (c) 2023 Massimo Giangaspero, Shu-Qin Zang