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Le popolazioni di storni in ambito urbano: problematiche e metodi di controllo
VetIt_CdM_Mon29_LepopolazioniDiStorni

Keywords

Storni

How to Cite

Albonetti, P. P., Milia, L., Trentini, R., & De Massis, F. (2022). Le popolazioni di storni in ambito urbano: problematiche e metodi di controllo. Veterinaria Italiana. Retrieved from https://veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt/article/view/2212

Abstract

Gli uccelli che possono rappresentare un problema igienico-sanitario in ambiente urbano sono ridotti a poche unità specifiche. Le infestazioni legate agli uccelli divengono di interesse medico-sanitario allorché i volatili con le deiezioni e con la loro presenza diventano veicolo di parassiti e patogeni. Le specie che in Italia rappresentano un problema sono lo storno (Sturnus vulgaris), il colombo (Columba livia) e, in misura meno accentuata, il passero domestico (passer domesticus), il gabbiano reale mediterraneo (Larus michahellis) e il parrocchetto dal collare (Psittacula krameri). Fattori importanti che predispongono gli areali urbani ad essere, talvolta, “invasi” dagli uccelli sono (Dutto 2009):• assenza di predatori naturali;• microclima più favorevole anche nei periodi invernali;• grande disponibilità di siti adatti alla nidificazione;• abbondanza di cibo di provenienza antropica.Le specie animali e vegetali che non sono di origine autoctona ma che hanno successo nell’insediamento e nello stabilizzarsi su un determinato areale sono considerate invasive. Il loro successo, secondo un’ipotesi (Volpe 2013), è da addebitare al fatto che sono popolazioni sotto stress che si muovono in direzione di un territorio con un livello inferiore o nullo di stress, incidendo così sulla propria attività riproduttiva.l fattori in precedenza elencati sono senza dubbio quelli responsabili dell’incremento demografico di determinate specie di uccelli che, peraltro, sono le specie più malleabili dal punto di vista adattivo e che meglio si adattano a diverse nicchie ecologiche negli ambienti urbani, diventando rapidamente infestanti creando problemi di diversa natura che vanno da rischi igienico-sanitari fino ad arrivare ad interferire con la sicurezza della viabilità pedonale, passando per i danni alle infrastrutture e ai beni architettonici (Dutto 2009).Il presente documento non intende rispondere a tutte le domande che potrebbero sorgere relativamente a problemi percepiti dal cittadino in merito alla presenza di storni in ambito urbano. In realtà ha lo scopo di concentrarsi sul potenziale ruolo dello storno come rischio per la salute umana e animale, nonché di fornire gli elementi essenziali per poter gestire e controllarne le popolazioni in ambito urbano. Questo secondo obiettivo è meno semplice da raggiungere, poiché i diversi metodi di controllo finora utilizzati hanno ancora effetti poco noti. Inoltre, l’ecologia degli storni urbani rimane un’area tristemente trascurata (Robinson et al. 2006).Bisogna sottolineare che nessun singolo metodo di per sé è pienamente efficace nel frenare le fenomenali capacità di adattamento dello storno nelle nostre città. La soluzione della conseguente conflittualità nel rapporto uomo-animale deve perciò perseguire un approccio combinato se vuole essere gestita con successo. Nonostante queste ovvie difficoltà, il presente documento mira a proporre metodi per ridurre la popolazione di storni presenti nelle nostre città, in modo da poter essere d’ausilio per le autorità preposte nel generare raccomandazioni utili ai fini dell’applicazione di efficaci misure di controllo.
VetIt_CdM_Mon29_LepopolazioniDiStorni

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