Persistence of Bluetongue virus serotype 1 virulence in sheep blood refrigerated for 10 years

How to Cite

Puggioni, G., Pintus, D., Meloni, G., Rocchigiani, A. M., Manunta, D., Savini, G., Oggiano, A., & Ligios, C. (2019). Persistence of Bluetongue virus serotype 1 virulence in sheep blood refrigerated for 10 years. Veterinaria Italiana, 54(4), 349–353. https://doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.1344.7401.3


This paper reports that Bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) infected blood collected during the 2006 Sardinia (Italy) epidemic from a ewe with clinical disease and stored at ~ 5°C for 10 years, caused Bluetongue (BT)-like clinical disease and death when inoculated into a susceptible Sarda breed ram. Anatomo-histopathological examination and Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR (Real-Time RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of BTV-1 in several tissues proving that the BTV-1 2006 isolate has maintained its infectivity and virulence.



Banfi G., Salvagno G.L. & Lippi G. 2007. The role of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as in vitro anticoagulant for diagnostic purposes. Clin Chem Lab Med, 45, 565-576.

Brewer A.W. & MacLachlan N.J. 1992. Ultrastructural characterization of the interaction of bluetongue virus with bovine erythrocytes in vitro. Vet Pathol, 29, 356-9.

Crick J & Brown F. 1966. The Assay, Extraction and Storage of Infective Ribonucleic Acid from Foot and Mouth Disease Virus. J Gen Microbiol, 43, 59-70.

Darpel K.E., Monaghan P., Simpson J., Anthony S.J., Veronesi E., Brooks H.W., Elliott H., Brownlie J., Takamatsu H.H., Mellor P.S. & Mertens P.P. 2012. Involvement of the skin during bluetongue virus infection and replication in the ruminant host. Vet Res, 43:40. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-40.

Downie A.W. & Dumbell K.R. 1947. Survival of variola virus in dried exudate and crusts from smallpox patients. Lancet, 1, 550–3.

Gould E. A. 1999. Methods for long-term virus preservation. Mol Biotechnol, 13, 57-66.

House C., Mikiciuk P.E. & Beminger M.L. 1990. Laboratory diagnosis of African horse sickness: comparison of serological techniques and evaluation of storage methods of samples for virus isolation. J Ver Diagn Invest, 2, 44-50.

MacLachlan N.J. 2004. Bluetongue: pathogenesis and duration of viremia. Veterinaria italiana 40, 462-7

MacLachlan N.J., Crafford J.E., Vernau W., Gardner I.A., Goddard A., Guthrie A.J. & Venter E.H. 2008. Experimental reproduction of severe bluetongue in sheep. Vet Pathol,45, 310-5.

MacLachlan N.J., Drew C.P., Darpel K.E. & Worwa G. 2009. The pathology and pathogenesis of bluetongue. J Comp Pathol, 141, 1-16.

MacLachlan N.J. & Guthrie A.J. 2010. Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other Orbivirus diseases. Vet Res, 41, 35

Matsumura T. & Yamashita H. 1978. Effects of Ca++ ion on the liberation of Dengue Virus from BHK-21 cells in culture. Microbiol Immunol, 22, 803-7.

Qin J., Das K., Kwon E., Minhas V., Swindells S., Wood C. & Fernando M. R. 2014. Viral Load Stability of an RNA virus In Stabilized Blood Samples. J Bioanal Biomed, 6,057-060. doi:10.4172/1948-593X.1000112

Shad G., Wilson C., Mecham J.O. & Evermann J.F. 1997. Bluetongue virus detection: a safer reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for prediction of viremia in sheep. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest., 9, 118-124.

Singer R. S., MacLachlan N. J. & Carpenter T. E. 2001. Maximal predicted duration of viremia in

bluetongue virus–infected cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest, 13, 43–49.

Sutherland M.R., Simon Y. A., Serrano K., Schubert P., Acker J.P. & Pryzdial E.G.L. 2016. Dengue virus persists and replicates during storage of platelet and red blood cell units. Transfusion, 56, 1129–1137.

Vaerman J.L., Saussoy P.& Ingargiola I. 2004. Evalutation of real-time PCR data. J Biol Reg and Hom Ag, 18, 212-214.

Wang X., Zoueva O., Zhao J., Ye Z.& Hewlett I. 2011. Stability and infectivity of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in blood-derived matrices under different storage conditions. BMC Infect Dis, 11, 354–359.

Wolff H.L. & Croon J.J. 1968. The survival of smallpox virus (variola minor) in natural circumstances. Bull World Health Organ, 38, 492–3